Climatic zones in Italy and in the world, areas of territory that are divided into categories according to the characteristics of their climate. They can also be non-neighboring, but they resemble each other in the atmospheric time to which they are subject, on average, and consequently sometimes also in the type of fauna and flora. In Italy they are also important for some regulations governing heating, construction works and some interventions that have to do with our living in one climatic zone rather than another.
In general we talk about climatic zones to define the parts of the Earth in which a certain type of climate is found. Among the temperate, there are the cold and cool temperate, then there are other areas: Mediterranean, continental, tropical, polar and subpolar. From range to range, the seasons also vary, which in the equatorial range are only 2, for example.
Climatic zones in Italy
In Italy the climatic zones divide i Italian municipalities in categories that do not always respect their geographical location, this means that a small village to the north and one to the south can be found neighbors in the list in the area to which they belong because they have similar climates.
This division into climatic zones was introduced by Decree of the President of the Republic n. 412 of 26 August 1993 regarding the relevant Regulation rules for the design, installation, operation and maintenance of heating systems of buildings for the purpose of containing energy consumption.
We have 6 zones in which the over 8000 municipalities, ranging from A to F, for each of them it is also indicated in what period and for how many hours it is possible to turn on the heating in the buildings. In case of emergencies or extreme cases, the mayors of the municipalities can apply changes, given that the climate can reserve us good and bad surprises.
The national territory is divided into the following six climatic zones according to degree-days, regardless of the geographical location:
- Zone A: municipalities with a number of degree days not exceeding 600;
- Zone B: municipalities with a number of degree-days greater than 600 and not greater than 900;
- Zone C: municipalities with a number of degree days greater than 900 and not greater than 1,400;
- Zone D: municipalities with a number of degree-days greater than 1,400 and no more than 2,100;
- Zone E: municipalities with a number of degree days greater than 2,100 and no more than 3,000;
- Zone F: municipalities with more than 3,000 degree days.
Each municipality is associated with one of the 6 areas based on what appears in theannex A of the Dpr, where for each municipality the altitude of the municipal house, the degree-days and the climatic zone to which it belongs is indicated.
The table can be modified and integrated, by decree of the Minister of Industry, Commerce and Crafts, also in relation to the establishment of new municipalities or changes in municipal areas, making use of the technical skills of ENEA and in compliance with any methodologies that will be established by UNI.
In relation to the climatic zones to which it belongs, the ignition period and the maximum number of hours per day during which the heating can remain on is established. Here in detail the table with the correspondences.
|Climate zone||Ignition period||Max hours allowed|
|TO||December 1st - March 15th||6 hours a day|
|B.||1st December - 31st March||8 hours a day|
|C.||November 15 - March 31||10 hours a day|
|D.||November 1st - April 15th||12 hours a day|
|IS||October 15 - April 15||14 hours a day|
|F.||no limitations||no limitations|
The Mayors of the Municipalities have the right to allow the heating systems to be switched on even outside the periods just mentioned in the event of particularly adverse weather conditions and in any case the switching on must take place for a daily duration not exceeding half of that allowed in the ordinary way.
The DPR 26/08/1993 n. 412, published in the Official Gazette no. 242 of 14/10/1993, S.O. n. 96 instead regulates the maximum temperature limit in homes in 20 ° C with a maximum tolerance of 2 ° C (18/22 ° C).
There are further classifications of the Italian territory in climatic zones: one of these is that of the scholar Mario Pinna (one of his books about it is "The atmosphere and the climate", Turin, UTET, 1978, p. 470) that you see represented in the following map:
Climatic zones of the Earth
Not only Italy but the whole Earth is divided into climatic zones. In this case, it is more difficult to evaluate and support one and the other area because the climate in the various areas is determined by numerous and complex factors including latitude, altitude, presence or absence of reliefs and seas, the type of human activity and the composition of the atmosphere, but also the presence of particular winds can influence a lot, especially near oceans or seas.
It is not at all trivial, therefore, to identify some climatic zones of the Earth that can be a real reference, we have tried to obtain a useful result based on different irradiation conditions due to the fact that the Earth's axis is inclined and the Earth makes a slight undulatory movement called precession. We thus have the three climatic zones composed of 5 distinct areas delimited by 4 parallels.
Climatic zones and thermal account
Some innovations introduced and effective from 31 May 2016, relating to Thermal Account, refer to the climatic zones in Italy. The changes introduced aim to simplify and strengthen the mechanism that encourages those interventions aimed at increase energy efficiency and the production of thermal energy from renewable sources.
Among the various voices, we find the one that raises the incentives up to 50% for thermal insulation interventions in climatic zones E / F and up to 55% in the case of thermal insulation and replacement of window closures, if combined with another system. It is therefore better to inquire about the climatic zone in which we live, we could have incentives to exploit, which we ignore.
Climatic zones: classification
The classification of climates can be done according to different models and theories. Among the most used classifications we point out that of Wladimir Köppen, proposed in 1918 and subsequently perfected by other scholars.
The theory behind the Köppen classification does not take into accountcauses of climate in terms of pressure and winds, air masses, fronts or perturbations but defines each climate in an empirical way, on the basis of pre-established values of temperature and precipitation, calculated in accordance with the annual averages or with the averages of individual months.
One of the most important advantages of this system is that the areas covered by each type of climate can be identified for large regions of the globe.
You can see an image of the globe with the classification of the climatic zones of Köppen-Geiger on this Wikipedia page.
You might also be interested in:
- Continental climate: flora and fauna
- Oceanic climate: flora and fauna
- Weather and climate
- Pecorelle sky